What is
This site is dedicated to the photographic documentation of planktonic organisms.
My goal is to keep a record of the zooplankton species from the Northern coasts of Spain in the North Atlantic, through different microscopy techniques.

This web is a work in progress, it grows with every sampling.
On 25 June:

  • 35 samplings (from 12-2016 to 6-2017) in the Bay of Santander (Spain).
  • 694 images of 169 morphotypes.

Please feel free to contact me if you have comments or questions.
Contact:  rmartinledo (at)

What is not
It is not a web to identify organisms.
From my experience with ophiuroids, the images give information in quite an approximate way. Accurate identification requires detailed observation of certain characters difficult to see in an image. Therefore, this website does not intend to replace the professional work of taxonomic identification.

About me
My researchgate profile.

Funding and resources
This website is a personal project, everything is financed by my own resources.

My limitations are those that are conditioned by the means I have.
Since no boat is available for me, all the samples are of coastal plankton collected in areas accessible by foot, such as ports.
My microscopy equipment. I have a routine stereomicroscope that does not allow me taking high resolution photographs of many species of zooplankton of such a size that its photography is not possible with a compound microscope.
The microscope I use has no incident light and therefore I cannot take high resolution photos of opaque organisms.
I hope that in the nearest future I will be able to solve these impediments and will be able to show the organisms that are currently out of my reach.

All images on are my property. These photographs can be reproduced for further educational purposes and the photographer and this website are fully acknowledged.
Permission must be sought if photographs are to be used for further publication purposes in books etc.

© Rafael Martín-Ledo

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